By Karen Vieira Powers
This account of the local peoples of Ecuador within the 16th and 17th century indicates how they not just resisted, tailored, and survived Spanish colonization yet reinvented themselves as a tradition. provided are either a revisionist therapy of the demographic heritage of Amerindian Ecuador and a clearer knowing of North Andean ethnogenesis. Powers's research of Andean inhabitants hobbies within the Audiencia of Quito from 1535 to 1700 exhibits that local migrations account for a inhabitants elevate in Quito in the course of a time while contiguous components skilled a speedy decline in Indian inhabitants. past reconstructing the stream of the local peoples, Powers additionally explores how migration replaced the lives of Indians and Spaniards. The migratory movement from local groups to Spanish towns, fabric turbines, and haciendas led to a continuously mutating colonial international. For elite Spaniards, the migrations intended the close to cave in of the tribute and compelled exertions approach, whereas nonelite Spaniards have been in a position to make the most of the choice hard work provided by means of the migrant Indians, leading to social mobility and the formation of recent periods. For Indians, the migrations have been at first a survival process yet led to the decline of the conventional chiefdom. A key discovering of the examine is that Ecuadorean Indians completed cultural survival by way of reconstructing Andean lifeways contained in the websites to which they migrated.
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Additional resources for Andean journeys: migration, ethnogenesis, and the state in colonial Quito
075 million by the year 1605a short 80 yearsa depopulation rate of 96 percent. 11 The findings of what came to be known as the Berkeley or California School of historical demographers, though tempered by subsequent estimates, generated numerous demographic studies of other areas of Latin America. Using both similar and more varied methods, most scholars uncovered the same startling depopulation rates. 13 In 1978, with the publication of Indios y tributos en el Alto Perú, Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz gave historical demographers pause for thought.
Movements from Marginal Areas to the Center In the first half of the sixteenth century, the destabilizing events of Spanish colonization diffused Quito's indigenous population. The wanton acts of expeditionaries and unrestrained encomenderos (grantees of encomiendas) resulted in the forced migration of thousands of Andeans to scattered locations. Spontaneous and orchestrated flight to peripheral areas of the audiencia also occurred, as individuals and groups sought safety from the savage invader.
This study has determined that migration patterns varied significantly throughout the colonial period depending on local conditions. Some movements Page 11 Were interregional (long-distance); others took place within the same corregimiento (administrative unit); and still others were so localized as to be almost imperceptible. In addition, though most migrations of the seventeenth century were directed toward the Spanish sphere, inter-community migration within the Indian sphere continued, although at increasingly reduced rates as Andean towns lost their economic viability and caciques their authority.