By B. W. Allen (auth.)
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Extra resources for Analogue Electronics for Higher Studies
It 'IS sometimes quote d as a rano t Iort-T1 ) t 1+ t 2 or, more commonly, as a percentage duty cycle» t1 T x 100%. Mark-ta-space ratio This is the ratio of the pulse width, mark (logic I), to the time interval between pulses, space (logic 0). ) This is the periodic time (T). ) This is the frequency of the waveform (~ ). ] Calculate duty cycle. r. f. 2. f. 2 Draw a J kifz pulsed waveform which has a 25% duty cycle. 3 Solution waveform It is important to appreciate that there is no such thing as the perfect rectangular wave as this would entail a voltage or current changing from one level to another in zero time.
This method ofaxis labelling is adopted because ofthe human ear's response to changes in both amplitude and frequency. It is well-established that the ear's responses to such changes are not linear but logarithmic. In practical terms, for example, the potentiometer used to control sound 'volume' on an audio amplifier will have a logarithmic resistance characteristic. Later in this chapter it will be shown that the 'roll-off' rate at each end of the amplifier 's response is 20 dB per decade (in the linear sections).
6 shows the arrangement of Rand C for this mode of inter-stage coupling. Clearly the ratio between the reactance of C and the resistance of R will determine what percentage of the output of one stage of amplification is passed on to the next. As the reactance of C varies with the frequency of the applied signal, so will the amount of signal passed on. A more detailed examination of this subject will be undertaken later in this chapter. 28 Analogue Electronics for Higher Studies The additionof a secondstage of amplification will lower the load resistance connected across the output of the first stage, reducing its gain.