Download An environmental history of Great Britain: from 10,000 years by Ian G Simmons PDF

By Ian G Simmons

ISBN-10: 0748612831

ISBN-13: 9780748612833

It is a historical past of our surroundings in England, Wales, and Scotland, and of the interactions of individuals, position, and nature because the final ice sheet withdrew a few 10000 years in the past. it really is considering the altering cultures (in the total anthropological feel) of the peoples inhabiting Britain in addition to with the surroundings they reworked, exploited, abused, and loved.

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Extra info for An environmental history of Great Britain: from 10,000 years ago to the present

Sample text

The gorge was then dry-bottomed, but in the mid-1990s the lake was created by a land owner for scenic and duck-shooting purposes. A small museum nearby puts the site and its finds into context. 32 An Environmental History of Great Britain Early Mesolithic Early Mesolithic culture starts at about 10,000 BP and lasts for about 1500 years before giving way to its successor. The flint tools include both big implements and microliths not more than 50 mm long. The microliths of the Early Mesolithic are often broadbladed compared with later examples.

Assuming that the oaks were mature trees, then a tree typically 36 m high with a single straight trunk that had little branching below 25 m would have to have been tackled. Roughly the same would be true of lime, oak and pine trees; most specimens of birch, ash and alder would have had thinner bark and more slender trunks than the oaks and limes. It seems unlikely that any stone tool Hunter-gatherers and fisherfolk 10,000 to 5500 bp 43 found in later Mesolithic contexts would have made much impression on mature forest trees, and would not have been very effective against smaller individuals.

Evidence for forest recession at that time is quite plentiful: the pollen of forest trees is partially replaced by species of open ground; there are many deposits with charcoal in them, and woodland is overtaken by bog vegetation. It is often difficult to disentangle natural processes from human actions and much of the discussion revolves around the probabilities of the two processes. The recession of woodland in upland England and Wales We shall first examine some examples of later Mesolithic forests which are replaced with other kinds of vegetation, in contexts which mean that the possibility of human agency must be examined.

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