By A. B. Bosworth
During this research, Bosworth seems to be at Alexander the Great's actions in relevant Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photo of bloodbath and repression resembling the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and proposal of common monarch, and files the illustration of Alexander by way of historians of antiquity. The ebook is directed to experts and common readers alike.
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Extra resources for Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph
18. 1). The fashionable view (Tarn, AI. ii. 190-1; Hamilton, JHS 76 (1956) 26-7; Hammond, KCS2 211) that they reinforced Alexander's army between the crossing point and the battle site is, in my opinion, untenable. 37 Arr. 5. 13. 1 (reports of the Macedonian crossing). According to Ptolemy (Arr. 14, 6 = FGrH 138 F 20) the Indian advance force arrived after Alexander had made his last crossing onto firm ground. Aristobulus (Arr. 5. 14. 3 = FGrH 139 F 43) was more dramatic, and claimed that the Indian forces might actually have prevented the crossing.
5. 19. 6; Plut. AI 44. 4. There is some divergence in the location of the episode^ but all sources agree that the tribesmen were threatened with extermination. 85 The breach of faith is emphasized in the sources (Plut. AI. 59. 6-7; Diod. 17. 84. 3; Polyaen. 3. 20; Metz Epit. 44), which credit Alexander with a callous cynicism worthy of the darkest moments of the Peloponnesian War (cf. Thuc. 3. 34. 3). Arrian (4, 27. 3-4) is defensive, ascribing the violation of trust to the Indians themselves (cf.
2 passim. 17. 3; cf. Plut. AI. 11; Curt. 14. 18), who simply states that'the elephant drivers turned their beasts against the cavalry', not noticing that it destroyed Porus' tactics, as outlined at 5. 15. 6-7. Polyaen. 22, by contrast, lays emphasis on the gaps which occurred in Porus' line and their exploitation by the Macedonians. 48 Arr. 5. 17. 3; cf. Diod. 17. 1-2; Curt. 8. 14. 22-8. 49 The elephants inflicted some casualties but were unable to break or seriously disrupt the Macedonian line.