By Hywel Williams
The 500 years that separate the mid-tenth century from the mid-15th century represent a serious and formative interval within the background of Europe. This used to be the age of the approach of criminal and army legal responsibility referred to as 'feudalism', and of the start and consolidation of robust kingdoms in England, France and Spain; it was once an period of urbanization and the growth of exchange, of the development of the good Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals, of courtly romance and the paintings of the troubadour, and of the founding of celebrated seats of studying in Paris, Oxford and Bologna. however it was once additionally an epoch characterized through brutal army event within the launching of armed pilgrimages to free up Jerusalem from Muslim regulate, of the brutal dynastic clash of the Hundred Years' struggle and of the devastating pandemic of the Black demise. In a chain of scholarly yet available articles - observed through an array of gorgeous and genuine photos of the period, plus timelines, maps, boxed gains and show costs - unique historian Hywel Williams sheds revelatory mild on each element of a wealthy and complicated interval of ecu heritage. Ottonians and Salians; upward thrust of the Capetians; Normans in England; start of the city-states; The Normans in Sicily; the 1st campaign; The Investiture contest; The Hohenstaufen; The Angevin Empire; 12th-century Renaissance; Triumph of the Capetians; The 3rd campaign; The Albigensian campaign; the dignity of Islamic Spain; the dominion of Naples; The Hundred Years struggle I; The Hundred Years warfare II; Avignon and the Schism; The Golden Age of Florence; The Reconquista; Popes, Saints and Heretics; Medieval society; Medieval tradition; Medieval war.
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Extra info for Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450
The two were subsequently reconciled, and when the duke needed money to go on crusade in 1096 he pledged the dukedom to his brother in exchange for a sum of 10,000 marks. This huge sum amounted to about a quarter of the entire annual revenue raised by the English Crown and was paid by William’s imposition of a special tax. William then ruled as regent in Normandy during Robert’s absence which lasted until September 1100, a month after the king’s death. William Rufus’s relations with the Church were turbulent.
Contemporaries noted this fact, and there were also papal protests. But all to no avail. How and why, therefore, did the Normans get away with it? 911. From this base they extended their grip westward to “Normandy,” which soon became one of the most tightly controlled feudal states in Europe. Conversion to Christianity and adoption of cavalry warfare did not remove the piratical restlessness that formed part of the Normans’ Scandinavian inheritance. The Norman readiness to learn, adapt and assimilate gave them a swift command over conquered territories.
Henry’s army marched into Italy in the spring of 1004 and crushed the margrave’s forces at a battle fought near Verona. Henry then marched on to Pavia, where he was crowned king of the Lombards. He then proceeded to burn most of Pavia to the ground as punishment for its past support for Arduin. It was necessary to embark on a second Italian campaign in 1013 as a result of Arduin’s renewed military activities. In the following year Pope Benedict VIII, an imperial ally in the project of Church renewal, crowned Henry emperor.