By Gabriella Mazzon
Negation is likely one of the major services in human communication.A background of English Negation is the 1st booklet to examine English negation over the entire of its documented historical past, utilizing a large database and available terminology.
After an introductory bankruptcy, the ebook analyses proof from the entire pattern of previous English files to be had, and from numerous heart English and Renaissance records, displaying that the diversity of varieties used at any unmarried level is wider, and the speed in their switch significantly speedier, than formerly regularly assumed.
The ebook strikes directly to overview present formalised money owed of the location in sleek English, tracing the alterations in principles for expressing negation that experience intervened because the earliest documented background of the language. because the usual is just one number of a language, it additionally surveys the technique of negation utilized in a few non-standard and dialectal kinds of English. The e-book concludes with a glance at really lately born languages reminiscent of Pidgins and Creoles, to enquire the measure of naturalness of the foundations that rule the expression of English negation.
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Extra info for A History of English Negation
Na form, since this accounts for over 20 per cent of the double negatives in the sample. Again, this figure is rather homogeneous for the two sections of the sample, but a significant qualification ought to be made: in several cases, the occurrence of ne . . na in direct translations represents a deviation from the Latin ori ginal, and thus it may be supposed that the second negator was introduced intentionally; this kind of deviation is not extremely rare, but is still mar ginal, since the general tendency is to reproduce the Latin structure almost word for word.
12) 'on Saturday, not on Sunday' (33) Na soolice we magon for scipum arwyrdnysse wuroe oppe medeme deman . . (S. 65) 'Not really we can for honours of reverence worthy [people] judge . . ' (34) Nales pcet an pcet he ure lichoman sceawao, ac eac . . (S. 5 per cent of the examples with one negator only). The most frequent case involves use of 'never', while other adverbs like nahwar ('nowhere', but also a form of 'never') and nateshwon ('in no way') tend to appear more frequently together with the main negator ne.
Main vs. de pendent clause). Besides the overall results, figures were broken down into two sections, since it was considered better to indicate separately those texts that are interlinear translations or glosses from Latin (Segments 49-77): these texts behave differently, as will be clear from the figures in Table 2 . 1 . This type of grouping was preferred here a s the most immediate indicator of what phenomena may seem more typical of 'native' writing, as opposed to translations from Latin.