By M. Bacon
This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading three-D seismic facts. the themes it covers contain uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written through expert geophysicists with decades of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the booklet might be essential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
Whatevertype of land sourceis used,the entire surveyneedsto be correctedfor the arival time changesdue to both topographyand variationsin the thicknessof the near-surface layer (fig. The nearsurfaceis generallyheavilyweatheredand usuallyhasalteredacousticpropeftiescomparedwith the lessaffecteddeeperlayers. In somecircumstances, specialreftactionprofile crews are usedto determinethe near-surface proflle. The largeredundancyin 3-D datameansthat thereis often conflictinginformationabout the staticsrequiredat any one location and specialsoftwareis usedto generatethe corlectlons.
Also shown are zero-phase waveletsthat have had their phasesrotatedby 45' and 90'; the latter developsan antisymmetic 1blm. becausesuch a wavelethas the greatest resolution tbr any given bandwidth. Seismic sourcescannotbe zero-phasesince that would imply output before time zero. This has the maximum amount offronFloading of the waveletpossiblefor any given amplitude spectrum. During processingthe data are conveftedto zero-phase. To combatthis, if the zero-phase chosen,thenoneneedsto accountfor thephasedistortionwith depthby alsoapplying a deabsorptionfilter.
One of the benefitsof DMO is that it takesa constantoffset sectionand transforms I ( '' :l .. Generallyone usesa velocity that is closeto the slowest seenin the section(1480 m/s for water velocity). It is commonpracticeto performthe final velocity analysisat a spatialinteryalof 250-500m thoughthis too is The spacingneededdependson reducingin the desireto retainthe higherfrequencies. For really detailedwork, the adventofbetter automaticvelocity picking algorithmsmeansthat it is possibleto pick velocitiesfor everyCMP location within the targetarea.