Download 3-D seismic imaging by Biondi B.L. PDF

By Biondi B.L.

Seismic photos are an important to state-of-the-art exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging provides primary techniques and state of the art tools for imaging mirrored image seismic info. The ebook coherently offers the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and pace estimation - by means of exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The e-book emphasizes graphical figuring out over theoretical improvement. numerous man made and box info examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the amount contains a DVD that incorporates a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage facts set) of the SEG-EAGE salt info set and of the corresponding speed version. The DVD additionally features a entire set of PDF slides that may be used to educate the fabric offered within the booklet.

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5); and yields the following summation surface in NMO time: tN = 2 z ξ2 + xyξ − m V 2 . 1) and by setting VN = V : 2 tD = 2 z ξ2 + xyξ − m + h 2 V . 3). 1 shows both these summation surfaces. 3). The two surfaces are tangent at the top and all along the curve oriented in the cross-line direction y and passing through the apex. The interpretation of this observation is that flat reflections, and in general reflections that have no dip component along the in-line direction, are perfectly migrated by the NMO+Stack and zero-offset migration procedure.

Because the cost of performing NMO+Stack is negligible compared with performing the subsequent zero-offset migration, the whole chain of processes is cheaper than full prestack migration by a factor proportional to the average data fold. In addition to its lower computational cost, poststack imaging is attractive because it is a robust procedure with respect to both uncertainties in the velocity estimates and irregularities in the data sampling. The NMO+Stack sequence can be seen as an approximate partial prestack time migration that focuses data along the offset axes.

Full43 44 CHAPTER 3. g. constant velocity), but they may achieve satisfactory accuracy in several practically relevant cases. 1 Normal moveout In seismic processing, NMO is important, both as an approximate imaging operator and as a tool to estimate propagation velocity. NMO is a trace-to-trace transformation that remaps the time axis of data traces according to the propagation velocity and the trace offset. 1) where t N is the new time coordinate after the application of NMO, and VN is the NMO or stacking velocity.

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